Nordmann Fir Tree
Abies nordmanniana, the Nordmann fir or Caucasian fir, is a fir indigenous to the mountains south and east of the Black Sea, in Turkey, Georgia, Russian Caucasus, north Armenia and northwest Azerbaijan. It occurs at altitudes of 900–2,200 m on mountains with a rainfall of over 1,000 mm. The current distribution of the Nordmann fir is associated with the forest refugia that existed during the Ice Age at the eastern and southern Black Sea coast. In spite of currently suitable climate, the species is not found in areas of the Eastern Greater Caucasus, which are separated from the Black Sea Coast by more than 400–500 km.